Retail & FMCG glossary

  • ABR
    Association of Brewers in Romania (Asociaţia Berarii Romaniei) – An association that unites beer manufactures in Romania. Its members represent 90% of the local beer industry, and gathers the five largest beer producers of the country; founded in 2004. A member of the European Brewers Association.
    Accessories
    Accessories as a market segment includes: costume jewellery, leather accessories (like bags, belts, wallets, etc.), sunglasses, watches, scarves, gloves, socks, and tights.
    ACN
    Association of Czech Furniture Manufacturers (Asociace ceskych nabytkaru) – An organization that unites Czech producers of furniture; launched in 1997.
    ACVD
    Romanian Association of Direct Selling (Asociatia Companiilor de Vanzari Directe) – Association that represents direct sales firms in Romania; a member of WFDSA.
    Agency/partnership system
    Refers to the practice of using a business model other than one’s own. The network partner manages the outlet but does not usually own the goods he is selling. The goods (or materials) necessary to perform services belong to the licensor. The agent signs buy-sell contracts on behalf of the licensor. In return for the sales of goods or services, the agent receives a commission specified in the licensing contract. There are many versions of this system. The conditions are agreed on a case-by-case basis by the system's initiator.
    AKIT
    The Russian Association of Internet Retailers (Assotsiatsia Kompany Internet Torgovli) – Association focused on developing and implementing transparent business practises in online retail and on securing the rights of online customers.
    AKORT
    Assotsiatsia Kompany Roznichnoy Torgovli – Represents the interests of the 25 largest retail companies in Russia. An instrument that secures the collective interests of its members when in dialogue with the authorities.
    AMO SR
    Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic (Protimonopolny urad Slovenskej republiky) – Its role is to protect and stimulate competition in Slovakia by intervening against entrepreneurs restricting competition and against abuse of competition by a dominant position, and by taking preemptive control of market structures following negative assessment of commercial concentration; established in 1990.
    AMRCR
    Association of the Modern Retailers in Romania (Asociatia Marilor Retele Comerciale din Romania) – Launched in 2004 by managers of large retail networks, the organisation unites domestic and international modern retailers in Romania. Its members generated combined sales revenues of HUF 5.5bn in 2011 from a total of 730 stores that comprise GLA of 1.25 million m².
    ANSVSA
    Romanian National Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety Authority (Autoritatea Nationala Sanitara Veterinara si pentru Siguranta Alimentor) – The authority checks the quality of foodstuffs and raw materials used to produce agricultural and tobacco products in Romania.
    AOP
    Czech Direct Selling Association (Asociace Osobnaho Prodeje) – Represents direct selling sales companies in the Czech Republic; a member of WFDSA.
    APEK
    Czech Association for Electronic Commerce (Asociace pro elektronickou komerci) – Association of 301 companies related to the Czech e-commerce market; includes e-retailers, software providers and researchers. Launched in 1998 to promote electronic trade in the country.
    ATOK
    Association of Textile, Clothing and Leather Industry in the Czech Republic (Asociace textilniho-odevního-kozedelneho prumyslu) – Represents the textile, apparel and leather sector in the Czech Republic before the country´s public and government institutions as well as organizations abroad. Functions as centre for processing, providing and exchange of statistical information in the textile, apparel and leather sector.
    AVNM
    Association of Non-Alcoholic and Mineral Water Producers in Slovakia (Asociacia vyrobcov nealkoholickych napojov a mineralnych vod na slovensku) – Slovakian association that promotes the joint interests of producers and suppliers of soft drinks and mineral waters.
  • Bar
    An establishment that offers mainly alcoholic beverages and may serve cold snacks (sandwiches, salads) and hot snacks. The group includes pubs, discos, nightclubs, beer halls, wine bars and cocktail bars.
    Beauty care and cosmetics stores
    Stores where the main part of the product range consists of cosmetics, hygiene products, accessories and sometimes includes cleaning products. PMR also includes perfumeries in this category. These stores market luxury (selective) cosmetics aimed at customers with the highest incomes.
  • Cafe (or Café)
    A place that mainly serves tea, coffee, cakes and desserts. It may offer snacks such as sandwiches or salads. The category, which also includes ice cream parlours, provides seating to customers.
    Cash and carry
    A form of trade in which goods are sold from a wholesale warehouse operating on a self-service basis. Customers are small enterprises (retailers, caterers, institutional buyers, etc.) in addition to individuals.
    Casual dining
    An establishment where the prices for the main course are between PLN 15 and 40 (€3.6-9.7), the interior design is inexpensive but aesthetic (often with an ethnic theme), there are many tables, the waiter service is quick, and the product range is usually comprised of Italian, Mexican or Polish dishes.
    Catering
    A service involving the preparation and provision of food to external customers. The two types of service are contract catering and licence catering.
    CC
    Romanian Competition Council (Consiliul Concurentei) – An autonomous administrative body aimed at protecting and stimulating competition in order to ensure a normal competitive environment, with a view towards the consumers’ interests. Began activities in 1996.
    CECED
    The European Committee of Domestic Equipment Manufacturers (CECED) – A non-profit committee that represents the household appliance industry in Europe; established in 1958. Membership is comprised of European household appliance manufacturers and national associations that represent the industry at the national level. The CECED's main objective is to represent the household appliance industry's positions and interests in Europe. It carries this out through dialogue with the European Union's political and regulatory institutions following consultation with its entire membership.
    CECED Polska
    The Polish branch of the CECED. Unites Polish producers of household appliances and defends their rights.
    CIS
    Commonwealth of Independent States – Organisation comprised of most of the former Soviet Republics. The organisation nominally possesses coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, laws, and security. Factually, a somewhat symbolic body.
    Clothing and footwear (C&F) market
    The total of sales of clothing and footwear in the following channels of distribution: C&F retail chains, sports chains, hypermarkets, internet and catalogues, individual stores, open-air markets.
    Clothing segment
    The total of sales of clothing in the following channels of distribution: C&F retail chains, sports chains, hypermarkets, internet and catalogues, individual stores, open-air markets. The following clothing segments are distinguished: women’s, men’s and children’s wear, sportswear, lingerie (underwear), formal women’s and men’s wear, casual wear, denim wear, luxury wear, young fashion, etc.
    CMSM
    Czech & Moravian Dairy Association (Ceskomoravsky svaz mlekarensky) – Promotes the joint interests of producers and suppliers of milk and related dairy products.
    COI
    Czech Trade Inspection Authority (Ceska Obchodni Inspekce) – Established to audit and enforce the quality and safety, including health-related safety, of goods and products (excluding foodstuffs) and to regulate their storage and transport. Enforces usage of properly calibrated and certified measuring instruments used by vendors (wherever applicable) including the compliance of measuring instruments with relevant regulations, technical standards and proper certifications. Consists of the Central Inspectorate and Regional Branch Inspectorates, whose headquarters are found in major regional cities. Successor to the former State Trade Inspection.
    COKA
    Czech Footwear and Leather Association (Ceske obuvnicke a kozedelne asociace) –Represents approximately 55 companies and institutions in the territory of the Czech Republic concerned with the manufacture, sale, and research and testing of footwear, shoe materials and shoe components. A member of the European Confederation of the Shoe Retailers' Associations (CEDDEC) and the International Union of Shoe Industry Technicians (UITIC).
    Concession catering
    Involves catering services provided on one’s own account to individual customers through bars, canteens or restaurants; customers can select service providers according to their own individual preferences. The service is not subsidised as opposite to a contract catering. It includes party service.
    Consumer electronics
    Audio-visual products usually used at home, such as television sets, all kinds of players, home cinemas, hi-fi and their components. This category also includes car audio equipment, portable audio and video players, such as iPods and MP3/MP4 players. Additionally, we include in this segment cameras and their accessories, i.e., digital still cameras (compact cameras, single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras), all types of video camera recorders, memory cards, zoom lenses, lamps, etc.
    Consumer electronics store
    A store providing home appliances, consumer electronics and digital media goods.
    Contract catering
    Involves provision of catering services to institutions required to serve food to employees or persons using the services of these institutions (e.g., patients, students, etc.) by providing partial or full subsidising for the process. Purchasers of contract catering are also companies that voluntarily provide additional financing to employee meals.
    Convenience store
    Small-format chain store open at least 11 hours a day and offers a basic range of groceries, alcohol and cigarettes, as well as newspapers and magazines.
    Cosmetic product (cosmetic)
    Any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view of exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition. The most popular categories of cosmetics include: face and body care, hair care, colour cosmetics, personal hygiene, intimate care, cosmetics for men, baby care, and fragrances.
    Cosmetics store
    A store providing cosmetics articles.
    CPI
    Consumer Price Index – An indicator that measures changes in the price level of a market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households. The annual percentage change in the CPI is used as a measure of inflation.
    Customs Union
    Tamozhenny Soyuz – Union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, aimed at economic integration between the countries, such as such as by eliminating border tariffs and customs abolishment.
  • Delicatessen
    Supermarket with a well-developed premium range, targeting customers with medium and high income.
    Dermocosmetic
    A product on the border between cosmetics and medicines; apart from its cosmetics value, it exhibits slight medicinal properties or improved treatment. The law, however, does not distinguish between products with slight medicinal properties: a given preparation has medicinal properties and is then either acknowledged as a medicine or not and is then classified as a different product, e.g., a cosmetics product.
    Digital media
    All types of portable or home electronics, such as all kinds of computers along with their accessories, sub-units and peripherals, as well as video game consoles. This segment also comprises telephone devices, i.e., smartphones.
    Direct selling
    Offering goods and services directly to consumers, on the basis of individual contacts, usually at the customer's home, work place or at other places, outside of permanent retail outlets. It is a form of retail outside of stores. Direct selling requires the personal presentation of a product and the provision of appropriate explanations.
    Discount C&F store
    A store offering clothing and footwear goods at prices usually lower than the market’s average.
    Discount store
    General grocery store with sales area up to 1,000 m2 and an average range of approximately 800-1,200 products comprising mainly basic groceries, often under the retailer’s private label or produced exclusively for the retailer. Prices are 15-30% lower than the retail market average. There are two types of discounters: a hard discounter (characterised by a limited product range and a predominance of low price private labels) and a soft discounter (characterised by a broader product range, including fresh food and mostly manufacturers' brands).
    Distributor
    A company that buys products and resells them to retailers or direct to the individual customers. Most distributors provide support to the supplier’s or manufacturer's promotional efforts.
    DIY retail market
    We define the Do-It-Yourself retail market as the value of the sum of retail merchandise sold in DIY stores (construction materials, finishing, decoration and garden products).
    DIY store (Do-It-Yourself)
    Modern home improvement stores offering a wide range of goods from various categories: construction and finishing materials, as well as garden and decorative articles.
    Drugstore
    A cosmetics store which combines a pharmacy, health and beauty store and perfumery in a single retail unit.
  • E-commerce
    Electronic commerce – Is a part of the retail market where buying and selling of products or services is conducted over the internet.
    E-commerce platform
    All types of services facilitating and assisting in internet commerce. Combines the offers of internet stores, individuals, and microenterprises; makes available or compares products for the end user (such as internet action portals).
    EFOSZ
    Federation of Hungarian Food Industries (Elelmiszer-feldolgozok Orszagos Szovetsege) – Represents the economic and policy interests of the food and drink industry as a whole in Hungary; enhances the industry’s competitiveness on the domestic and international markets. This confederation of 17 sectors and 40 company members was founded in 1989.
  • Factory outlet centre
    A shopping facility (similar to a traditional shopping centre where customers can buy branded clothes at bargain prices.
    FAPA
    Foundation of Assistance Programs for Agriculture FAPA (Fundacja Programów Pomocy dla Rolnictwa FAPA) – A foundation established in 1992 by the Minister of Agriculture and Food Economics, acting on behalf of the State Treasury. It supports initiatives aimed at development of rural areas, agriculture, agricultural markets and sectors related to agriculture. It performs an implementation and advisory role and conducts wide-ranging research, educational and informational activities.
    FAS
    Federal Antimonopoly Service (Federalnaya antimonopolnaya sluzhba) – Russian governmental federal agency responsible for the adoption of competition laws, as well as monitoring the local market in terms of obeying competition law. Active in financial, trade and advertisement sectors.
    Fast casual dining
    A segment of the restaurant market. It combines elements of fast food services with a restaurant. Prices start at the level of PLN 12-13 (€3). Waiter service is not full, waiting time is longer and meals more developed than in fast food outlets.
    Fast fashion
    Rapid imitation and introduction of designer clothing and footwear to the mass market.
    Fine dining
    Restaurants where meal prices range from around PLN 25 (€6) and up. Other characteristics include full waiter service, sophisticated design of the interiors, and a more precisely defined theme of the menu.
    FMCG
    Fast Moving Consumer Goods – A group of products sold quickly at a relatively low cost, usually referring to food (excluding fresh food) and cosmetics/toiletry items.
    FMCG distributor
    A distributor that specialises in fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG), so the products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost.
    Food market
    The value of all goods sold in food stores. It includes fresh food, fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), and other products (non-food products as well, including clothing, footwear, home appliances and digital media, interior furnishings and toys) sold in grocery stores.
    Footwear segment
    The total sales of footwear in the following channels of distribution: C&F retail chains, sports chains, hypermarkets, internet and catalogues, individual stores, open-air markets. The following footwear segments are distinguished: women’s, men’s and children’s footwear.
    Franchising system
    Refers to the methods of practicing and using another person's business model. The parties signing a franchising agreement remain totally independent of each other. Both the outlet and the goods (which are frequently supplied by the franchisor) belong to the franchisee. The franchisee purchases goods and services on its own behalf and account; the complete sales revenue belongs to the franchisee, which pays periodic franchise fees to the franchisor.
  • GBA
    Gross Building Area – The sum of areas on all floor levels, including basement, mezzanine and penthouse.
    GLA
    Gross Leasable Area – In the real estate industry, the term is applied to commercial properties to indicate the amount of floor space available to be rented.
    Grey imports
    Inflow of imported goods through distribution channels other than those authorised or intended by the manufacturer or producer.
    Grocery retail market (grocery market)
    The total value of products sold in grocery stores, as well as food sold in other distribution channels. It includes fresh food, fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), and other products (including non-food, such as clothing and footwear, home appliances, consumer electronics and digital media, home furnishings and toys) sold in grocery stores.
    Grocery store
    A retail outlet providing typical food and non-food products (mixed-assortment stores), or only typical food products.
    GVH
    Competition Office in Hungary (Gazdasagi Versenyhivatalt) – An antitrust office in Hungary established in 1990 to protect the freedom and fairness of competition.
  • Health and beauty store
    A cosmetics store where the main part of the product range is cosmetics, along with personal care products and accessories; often includes cleaning products.
    HoReCa market (Hotels, Restaurants, Catering)
    The total sales of all food outlets. It comprises the following segments: Ho – hotel food services market, i.e., total revenues from sales of food outlets located in hotels; Re – restaurant services market, i.e., total revenues from sales of restaurants, fast food outlets, cafes, and bars; Ca – catering market, i.e., total revenues from sales of catering services.
    Hotel
    A place generally located in an urban area, with at least 10 rooms, mainly single or double. It provides a range of services related to the customer’s stay, including an obligatory food services facility. Depending on the facilities and services, hotels are divided into five categories: the highest is marked with five stars, the lowest with one.
    Hypermarket
    Grocery and industrial store with floor space in excess of 2,500 m2, offering an average of 40,000 items, with a range including both food and non-food items, approximately 50% of which are foodstuffs.
  • IERiGZ
    The Institute of Agriculture and Food Industry Economics (Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej) – An independent scientific and research centre that analyses economic and production processes in the Polish agriculture and food economy. It was established in 1950 as the Agricultural Economics Institute. In 1983 it merged with the Food Industry Economics and Organisation Institute, and since then it has operated under the name Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics. The institute’s research activities are centred on the most important issues pertaining to the economic, production, and social situation of Poland’s rural areas, agriculture sector and broadly defined food economy.
    Independent store
    A store which is run as a separate business; not a chain, partnership or franchise.
    Integrator
    A company operating a retail chain as a franchise/partnership, for a commission or as a supplier, when the integrator is a wholesale company.
    Interior furnishings
    Products for equipping and decorating homes, including household textiles (curtains, napkins, bed textiles, table textiles, towel textiles, table linen – tablecloths and bed linens, towels, blankets, etc.), kitchen appliances and tableware (cutlery, non-electrical kitchen appliances), carpets and floor coverings (carpets, rugs, liners, linoleum, etc.), wooden floors and floor panels, lighting equipment (fittings and light sources), sanitary products (ceramic, plastic and metal).
    Internet auction, internet auction platform/service
    An internet service through which products can be sold and by which consumers can participate in auctions via the internet.
    Internet sales, online sales, online retail market
    Sales on internet stores as well as sales on e-commerce platforms, both by individuals and by enterprises.
    Internet store, online store, e-store
    Internet services enabling their users to order products through the internet, with a company and an individual customer interacting through a website.
  • KESZ
    Hungarian Association of Direct Selling (Kozvetlen ErtekesitoK Szovetsege) – Association representing direct selling firms in Hungary; a member of WFDSA.
    Kiosk (newsagent’s)
    A small open-fronted hut or cubicle from which newspapers, refreshments, tickets, etc., are sold.
    KZSM
    The National Union of Dairy Cooperatives (Krajowy Związek Spółdzielni Mleczarskich) – A self-governing organisation that brings together dairy cooperatives and other cooperatives involved directly or indirectly in the production, processing, and marketing of milk or its derivatives. The KZSM’s main objectives are to assist its members in their operations, to represent and protect the interests of the Polish dairy industry, to facilitate development of the dairy cooperative sector, as well as to bring the sector into compliance with European Union requirements.
  • Large home appliances (white goods)
    Home appliances characterised by their large size or weight, frequently permanently installed, such as kitchen and laundry equipment. Segment includes washing machines, tumble dryers, refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, cookers, ovens, microwave ovens, oven range hoods.
    Large-format store
    General grocery or mixed grocery and non-food store, typically greater than 300 m2 in size (retail space). This definition covers hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores.
    like-for-like (l-f-l)
    Measure of growth of sales adjusted for new or divested units. This method compares latest sales results only for those units there were functioning in the whole year. This method ignores sales in the units that were opened or closed down during the year.
    Loyalty programme
    A rewards program offered by a company to customers who make frequent purchases. In retail, these programs generally reward loyal customers with discounts, special offers, rebates, points, and prizes.
    Luxury clothing, footwear and accessories
    Clothing, footwear and accessories sold under exclusive, prestigious brands.
  • Manufacturer brand
    Products manufactured by one company under its own brand and sold by other companies (such as Tesco, Auchan, Kaufland, etc.). Selling the product of the second company under its own brand just adds a virtual extrinsic value to the product. In general, these are the most common products in mix-assortment stores.
    Market of home appliances, consumer electronics and digital media
    The total of retail sales of large and small home appliances, consumer electronics and digital media products in all sales channels.
    MBSZ
    Association of Hungarian Shopping Centres (Magyar Bevasarlokozpontok Szovetsege) – Its mission is to spread international standards and norms applicable to shopping centres, as well as to help to consolidate the industry in Hungary. Its 54 members include shopping centre owners, developers, investors, lenders, retailers and other professionals. Founded in 1998, it is a member of the International Council of Shopping Centres (ICSC).
    Mixed-assortment store
    A store providing products of different segments, such as grocery, cosmetics, DIY, etc.
    Mono-brand clothing store
    A store offering clothing, footwear and accessories under a single brand.
    Mono-brand stores
    Stores offering clothing, footwear and accessories under a single brand.
    Multi-brand clothing store
    A store offering clothing, footwear and accessories under various brands.
    Multi-brand stores
    Stores offering clothing, footwear and accessories under various brands.
    Multi-format
    A retailer’s strategy to operate several different formats of stores on the market, such as hypermarkets, supermarkets, discount stores or convenience stores. This is the opposite of single format retailers.
  • Natural cosmetics
    A product composed of ingredients of natural origin (plant, animal or mineral), obtained physically (pressing, distillation, extraction, filtration, drying) or through microbiological or enzyme-based methods. Such cosmetics must not contain any impurities.
    NFH
    Hungarian Authority for Consumer Protection (Nemzeti Fogyasztovedelmi Hatosag) – The authority that carries out the basic and primary tasks related to consumer protection in Hungary: ensures the protection of consumers’ lives, safety and health through the active market surveillance of the distribution of non-food products; verifies that legal requirements pertaining to the provision of adequate information to consumers have been complied with; filters out unfair terms and conditions from contracts; aims to prevent enterprises from misleading consumers or applying aggressive methods.
    Non-food market
    The value of all goods sold in non-food stores, including products such as cosmetics, furniture, interior furnishings, etc.
  • OKSZ
    Hungarian Trade Association (Orszagos Kereskedelmi Szövetseg) – Represents the interests of Hungarian commercial trade. Organizes and brings together businesses engaged in commercial activities.
    Open-air markets (marketplaces)
    Separate areas or buildings (square, street, market hall) with permanent or seasonal small retail sales stalls or trading equipment; open daily or on designated days of the week.
    Outlet
    A store offering goods of a particular producer or wholesaler at prices much lower than those available at branded stores. It may sell slightly damaged goods or clearance items.
  • Partnership network
    A partnership between several small businesses and a management organisation that provides for marketing as well as negotiations with wholesalers and manufacturers. However, the small businesses are not restricted to cooperating with this one organisation.
    Perfume and cosmetics store
    A cosmetics store where the main part of the range is cosmetics, along with perfumes; the category also includes perfumeries. Their range comprises premium and luxury (selective) cosmetics, aimed at the higher-income consumers.
    PFPZ
    The Polish Federation of Food Manufacturers (Polska Federacja Producentów Żywności) – An association established to make sure that food sector companies are effectively involved in the process of shaping the legal, organisational and economic conditions for the industry in Poland. Its members are leading companies and organisations from the broadly defined food sector in Poland.
    Pharmacy
    A retail outlet where drugs are sold/given to patients; pharmacies usually sell Rx, OTC drugs, parapharmaceuticals such as dietary supplements, dermocosmetics, as well as first aid products, toothpaste, and medical devices. It can be also a branch of the medical and chemical sciences that deals with medications, their application, composition, etc.
    PIH
    The Polish Chamber of Trade (Polska Izba Handlu) – A chamber of commerce that unites and represents over 30,000 entities from the retail, wholesale and distribution channel in Poland. Polska Izba Handlu was founded in 1997 as a self-governing trade body that brings together almost 30,000 retail, wholesale and distribution entities.
    Pizzeria
    A place where pizza maintains the main position on the menu, but may also offer other dishes such as salads, pasta and soup. It may have tables and waiter service, or offer mainly takeaway orders.
    PKPP Lewiatan
    The Polish Confederation of Private Employers Lewiatan (Polska Konfederacja Pracodawców Prywatnych Lewiatan) – A nongovernmental organisation that represents the interests of Poland’s entrepreneurs; established in January 1999.
    PLMA
    Private Label Manufacturers Association – The international trade organisation that unites manufactures and retailers and is dedicated to the promotion of private label brands.
    POHiD
    The Polish Organisation of Trade and Distribution (Polska Organizacja Handlu i Dystrybucji) – An association of employers that unites large retail and distribution companies. Its primary stated objective is to represent the interests of its members before government and public institutions and other business and consumer groups. It seeks to promote and protect free competition and unrestricted market access for all business entities in Poland.
    POPiHN
    The Polish Organisation of Oil Industry and Trade (Polska Organizacja Przemysłu i Handlu Naftowego) – A body that brings together oil companies operating in Poland. Its objective is to provide a platform for cooperation between its members as well as to contribute to the development of a competitive and sustainable fuel market in Poland. For example, it supports the implementation of business activity regulations compatible with EU law and promoting equal rights for all participants in the Polish fuel market.
    PPI
    Producer Price Index – An indicator that measures the average change in selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services over time. The PPI measures price change from the perspective of the seller.
    PRCH
    The Polish Council of Shopping Centres (Polska Rada Centrów Handlowych) –Represents the retail property market in Poland. Its objective is to support companies and professionals active on the commercial property market in Poland as well as to promote a positive image of the shopping centre and high street industry. The PRCH was set up in 2003 and currently has over 200 member companies.
    Premium brand
    Branded products that meet consumers’ high expectations as well as charge a category-appropriate premium. In general, these are products of higher quality and price than the market average.
    Price comparison service
    Service enabling the buyer to compare the offers of a number of various stores for the chosen product. Together with auction websites, these are the most popular e-commerce platforms among internet users in Poland. The most popular services include Ceneo.pl, Radar.pl, Nokaut.pl and Skapiec.pl.
    Price segment
    A part of the market defined by a given level of prices.
    Private label line
    Lines of products sold as private label. One store can have many private label lines in its offer of various segments. A good example of such products can be found in Tesco: Tesco Value, Tesco Finest, Technika, Parioli, Organic, etc.
    Private label of retailers (retailer brands, chain brands)
    Brands created by traders (retailers or wholesalers). They feature products for which traders commissioned the manufacturing. They are only available in their chain stores and are owned and controlled by the traders.
    PSBZiAD
    The Polish Toy Association (Polskie Stowarzyszenie Branży Zabawek i Artykułów Dziecięcych) – Represents Polish industries specialising in toys and products for children. Its members include manufacturers, distributors, exporters and importers active in the toy sector. The main purpose of the Polish Toy Association is to support and unite the Polish toy sector. The organisation aims to foster the most favourable climate for the development of domestic industries specialising in toys and products for children and to represent the interests of the manufacturers, importers and distributors that comprise its membership.
    PSSB
    The Polish Direct Selling Association (Polskie Stowarzyszenie Sprzedaży Bezpośredniej) – Represents direct selling companies operating in Poland. Its objective is to promote the idea of direct selling and facilitate its development as well as to integrate the industry. Established in 1994, the PSSB is a member of the Federation of European Direct Selling Associations (FEDSA), the World Federation of Direct Selling Associations (WFDSA), and the Polish Confederation of Private Employers Lewiatan.
    PSZAF
    Hungarian Financial Supervisory Authority (Penzugyi Szervezetek Allami Felugyelete) – Its main role is to ensure the smooth and orderly operation of the financial markets in Hungary, to maintain market confidence, and to improve consumer awareness about the financial markets.
  • Quick service/fast food restaurant
    Outlets or stalls where the service is quick. It may have seating, but no waiter service. The menu covers foods such as chips, hamburgers, hot dogs, chicken, kebabs, but also traditional Polish meals, ethnic food, and ice cream and desserts. The category includes fast food, snack bars, lunch bars, milk bars, bistros, and chains like McDonald’s.
  • RAR
    Rosalkoholregulirovanie – Russian state regulator for alcohol sales in the country and the licencing of the production of alcohol.
    Restaurant
    An establishment offering a wide range of food and beverages, table seating and waiter service. Depending on the offer, the level of prices, and service standard, PMR divides restaurants into three categories: fine dining, casual dining and fast casual dining.
    Retail market of cosmetics (in short: the cosmetics market)
    The total of sales of cosmetics in the following channels of distribution: beauty care and cosmetics stores (both chain and independent), hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores, small grocery shops and general stores, pharmacies, marketplaces/open-air markets, kiosks, online sales, and direct selling.
    Retail park (strip mall)
    One or more buildings occupied by several large tenants intermingled with smaller outlets, each with its own entrance from the car park.
    Retail/wholesale
    Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to individual customers, just as wholesale is sales to businesses.
    Retailer (C&F, cosmetics, etc.)
    A business or person that sells goods to the final consumer, as opposed to a wholesaler, who normally sells its goods to another business. Some retailers specialise only in one segment of the market, such as cosmetics, clothing and footwear, consumer electronics, etc.
    Rospotrebnadzor
    The Federal Service for Control in the Sphere of Protection Consumers’ Rights and Well-Being of Humans (Federalnaya sluzhba po nadzoru v sfere zashchity prav potrebiteley i blagopoluchia cheloveka) – The Russian consumer protection watchdog.
  • SAEC
    Slovak Association for Electronic Commerce (Slovenska asociacia pre elektronicky obchod) – Represents e-retailers from different segments as well as IT and telecom solution providers. Its goal is to generate a system of consumer protection against deception (certification of dealers selling their products in electronic way), to monitor the e-commerce market in Slovakia, and to build up partnership relations with governmental institutions in the country and to establish a contact base abroad.
    Shopping centre
    A building or set of buildings with a variety of retail units, which possess at least 10,000 m² of GLA. It encompasses traditional shopping centres (malls), factory outlet centres and retail parks.
    SKU
    Stock-keeping Unit – A unique identifier for each distinct product and service that can be purchased at a business.
    Small format (grocery or general) store
    Stores that offer either just food, or food and non-food products. These stores have a sales area no larger than 300 m².
    Small home appliances (brown goods)
    Home appliances that are mostly small electrical products most frequently used in the kitchen, for housework, or for personal hygiene. They include irons, vacuum cleaners, coffee makers, blenders, food processors, shavers, and hair dryers.
    SMZ
    Slovak Dairy Union (Slovensky mliekarensky zvaz) – Represents Slovak milk and dairy product manufacturers.
    Specialised grocery stores
    Sales points offering a selected category of food products. They include butchers, bakeries, alcohol stores, fishmongers and green grocers.
    Specialised retail chains
    Chains of stores specialising in sales of home appliances, consumer electronics and digital media products. Overall, sales in this channel can also be generated in online stores, yet in order to separate those two forms of distribution for home appliances, consumer electronics and digital media market, the specialised retail chains channels are presented as excluding online sales.
    Specialised store
    Retail space devoted to a limited range of merchandise (grocery, clothing, consumer electronics, etc.).
    Specialist home furnishings store
    Store specialising in sales of household items and decorative articles, offering products within one or many segments, e.g., furniture, home textiles, or lighting.
    Store chain
    A group of more than five stores with a common name.
    Supermarket
    Mixed store (food and non-food products) or general grocery store with floor space between 300 m2 and 2,500 m2, offering on average 5,000-10,000 products, approximately 70% of which are foodstuffs.
    SVPS
    State Veterinary and Foodstuffs Administration (Statna veterinarna a potravinova sprava Slovenskej republiky) – Slovak state administration authority that monitors veterinary care and safety of foodstuffs in Slovakia.
    SzEK
    Hungarian Public Association for e-Commerce (Szovetseg az Elektronikus Kereskedelemert Kozhasznu Egyesulet) – An association of e-stores and other companies active on the electronic trade market in Hungary.
    SZPI
    Czech Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority (Statni Zemedelska a Potravinarska Inspekce) – The authority conduct a quality control of foodstuffs and raw materials used to produce agricultural and tobacco products in the Czech Republic. The above competences apply to the production process, storage, transport and sale (including import).
  • The Union of Brewing Industry Employers in Poland "Browary Polskie"
    (Związek Pracodawców Przemysłu Piwowarskiego - Browary Polskie) – Represents the largest beer manufacturers in Poland representing approximately 90% of the market. It provides information and advisory support to its members with respect to market regulations and compliance.
    Trade group
    Is a group of companies or businesses in the same trade segment organised for the advancement of common interests, e.g., receiving lower prices from manufacturer due to bulk orders, or reducing cost of warehousing, logistics, or marketing.
    Trading (retail) space
    It is a part of the total store space where trading takes place; it is measured without back office or any other space that is not used for customer service purposes.
  • UOHS
    Office for the Protection of Competition in the Czech Republic (Urad pro ochranu hospodarske souteze) – Central authority of state administration responsible for competition protection, supervision over public procurement, and consultation and monitoring in relation to the provision of state aid. Established in 1991.
    UOKiK
    The Office of Competition and Consumer Protection (Urząd Ochrony Konkurencji i Konsumentów) – This public institution is obliged to protect and stimulate competition in Poland in order to ensure a normal competitive environment as well as to safeguard the interests of consumers. Under the law, a deal requires antitrust clearance in case the combined global turnover of the parties to the transaction exceeded €1bn, or their combined turnover in Poland exceeded €50m, in the fiscal year preceding the merger.
  • WFDSA
    World Federation of Direct Selling Associations – A nongovernmental voluntary organization that represents the direct selling industry around the world as a federation of national direct selling associations.
  • ZP PPS
    The Polish Spirits Industry (Polski Przemysł Spirytusowy) – A voluntary, self-governing, self-funded organisation. It unites members that are manufacturers of spirits and spirit products. It represents and protects the interests of its members as well as the interests of the spirits industry in Poland. The organisation aims to facilitate development of the spirits industry by working with public officials and social organisations.
    ZPM
    The Polish Meat Association (Związek Polskie Mięso) – Represents the economic interests of companies from the meat sector as well as related manufacturing, trade and service industries, particularly before government and public institutions.
    ZPP
    Slovak Association of Direct Selling (Zdruzenie priameho predaja) – Represents direct selling firms in Slovakia; a member of WFDSA.